Design Skills - Resources and Training for Designers

Basic Geometry
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Understanding basic geometry is essential to many designers, for example when surveying a space and when drawing the space. Although CAD software used for this purpose greatly simplify the drawing process, they still rely on the same geometry principles and terminology.

| Angles | 2-dimensional geometry | 3-dimensional geometry |

Angles

Two rays that share the same endpoint form an angle. The point where the rays intersect is called the vertex of the angle. The two rays are called the sides of the angle.

There are many different type of angles:

Acute Angle
Right Angle
Obtuse Angle
Greater than 0 degree and less than 90
Exactly 90 degrees
Greater than 90 degrees and less than 180
Acute angle - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image
Right angle - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image
Obtuse angle - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image

Straight Angle
Reflex Angle
Revolution Angle
Exactly 180 degrees
Greater than 180 degrees and less than 360
Exactly 360 degrees
Staright angle - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image
Reflex angle - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image
Revolution angle - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image


Two angles that have the same measure are called Congruent angles. For example if X is 15 degrees and Y also 15 degrees, then X is congruent to Y.

Two angles are called Supplementary when their measure adds up to 180. For example, if X is 60 degrees and Y 120 degrees, 60 + 120 = 180. X and Y are supplementary.

Two angle are called Complementary if their measure adds up to 90. For example, if X is 60 degrees and Y is 30 degrees, 60 + 30 = 90. X and Y are complementary.

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2-dimensional geometry

Working drawings are 2-dimensional. A floor plan, for example, is a two dimensional representation of a room or house. So is an elevation.

Below are some examples of calculations in 2-dimensional geometry: r = radius, h = height

Rectangle - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image
Parallelogram - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image
Trapezium - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image
Rhombus - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image

Circle - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image
Triangles - Click on the thumbnail to open a larger image

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3-dimensional geometry


A 3-dimensional representation is needed to clearly understand what a space or object will look like when it is finished. 3D drawings of man made environments often use a combination of simple solids such as cubes, spheres, cylinders, pyramids or cones to create more complex shapes. Drawing with CAD follows the same principles and it is better to combine solids rather than attempt to create a complex object from scratch.

Below are some examples of calculations in 3-dimensional geometry: r = radius, h = height

Skills CAD Training

> About CAD > Scale > Basic Geometry > 2D Drafting > 3D drawing > The Overlay Method > Graphics > Image Editing


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